Managing Digital Content

George Stachokas on ERM issues and trends

"Electronic resources are now the predominant component of academic library collections," says George Stachokas, editor of the new ALCTS monograph Reengineering the Library: Issues in Electronic Resources Management. "Special collections, archives, and other physical collections are still important, but libraries spend most of their money and much of their technology acquiring and managing electronic resources." It's more crucial than ever to look at electronic resources management (ERM) using a variety of perspectives. His new collection does exactly that, discussing how ERM can best fulfill the mission of today’s academic libraries. In this interview we asked him about putting the book together, some key cost containment strategies, and where he thinks technology is heading.

As you mention in your introduction, many of the assumptions that underlay electronic resources management in academic libraries were developed in the late 1990s and early 2000s. So it's pretty clear why this collection is so needed right now! How did you find your contributors, and what was your collaboration like?

Academic libraries have to continue working to improve electronic resources management in order to stay relevant in the 21st Century. Finding contributors was not as difficult as I had originally expected in that I am fortunate to have connections to a network of strong e-resource librarians who are both professionally active and philosophically like-minded. We may not agree on every specific issue, but we all want to move our profession forward and to keep libraries relevant. Drawing on these folks as my core contributors, I was then able to recruit some authors whom I did not yet know personally, but who have a presence in the LIS literature. I recruited authors to write about topics that fit my overall vision for the book, but they each brought their own ideas, knowledge, and experience to this collaborative effort as well. I enjoyed working with all of them and I hope that readers of Reengineering the Library will learn as much from my colleagues as I have.

What are some of the biggest shifts in the landscape over the past decade? Which trends have surpassed our expectations and which ones have so far failed to measure up to their promises?

Given the growing emphasis on digital humanities and the digitization of special collections as well, there really is no aspect of librarianship that is free from the online information environment. Increasingly, patrons use the library’s physical spaces for face-to-face meetings with librarians, peer collaborators, and instructors, to study, to use technology such as special-format or 3D printers, even just to socialize, but not to use physical collections apart from archives or rare books. This long-term trend began almost as soon as electronic resources emerged in the 1990s.

It has taken libraries somewhat longer than I might have expected to adjust their personnel, workflows, and organizational structures to the requirements of electronic resources management, but given the technical, political, and financial challenges, this is certainly understandable. Nonetheless, most academic libraries are finally starting to reorganize technical services to manage electronic resources rather than shifting responsibilities to solitary electronic resources librarians or small units alone. I also hope that more a diagram illustrating the concept of TERMSlibraries will transition successfully from integrated library systems (ILS) and electronic resources management systems (ERM) to library service platforms (LSPs) in the not too distant future, particularly given such efforts as the FOLIO Project and the ongoing development of other systems such as Alma, Sierra, BLUEcloud, and WorldShare Management Services. Of course, it is striking how many academic libraries do not currently have and have never had a fully functioning electronic resources management system (ERM).

The transition to Webscale Discovery services has occurred relatively quickly with most ARL Libraries using tools like Summon, Primo or EBSCO EDS, in most cases only a few years after some of these products first appeared in the information marketplace. The transition from the physical card catalog to online catalogs seems to have taken much longer in comparison.

Reading through the various chapters, what are some common challenges that academic libraries are facing right now?

Money is a critical challenge for libraries in many ways. The rising costs of electronic resources, particularly the cost of electronic journals, is well known. Beyond that, libraries also require more funding to recruit personnel with more advanced skill sets, particularly information technology. Most library facilities at research institutions are undergoing the repurposing of library spaces and need financial resources to transform stacks space to a wide variety of formal and informal workspaces that contemporary students have come to expect. Someone has to pay for the latest smartboard, flexible furniture, and all of the extra electrical outlets. More funding is also required for improved analytics, both in terms of new tools and personnel.  Higher education is required to assess itself more than in the past and so are academic libraries that serve these institutions. Assessment is in practice, very closely linked to money in that it is required to justify existing spending and to support any requests for additional funding. Many academics are loath to admit that libraries are required to demonstrate some type of return on investment. I would hope, however, that librarians accept this burden so that we can take the lead in establishing at least some of these measures ourselves and help to guide the conversation that promotes successful libraries and helps our users.    

Your own chapter examines cost containment strategies. Can you offer some advice to institutions who are ready to do some reevaluation of their electronic resources and services?

Open access is of great interest to many libraries, but the movement has still not overtaken the majority of highly ranked academic journals in most disciplines. There are a number of interesting projects and efforts going on right now, including mass cancellations, but most large academic libraries still subscribe to big book cover for Reengineering the Library: Issues in Electronic Resources Management (An ALCTS Monograph)deal journal packages due to the relatively low unit cost per title and the convenience of having subscriptions for users. The overall information marketplace is a type of mixed economy in which a number of paid and freely available electronic resources coexist. I would advise libraries to establish good working relationships with their most important vendors, leverage memberships in consortia without conceding their own strategic vision to any other institution or group, negotiating good deals directly with vendors when it makes sense, and continue to track and make freely available electronic resources of high academic quality to their users.

Looking into your crystal ball, what would you say is the biggest change on the horizon? How can libraries prepare for it?

I confess that I do not have a working crystal ball, but I will try to speculate by extrapolating current discernible trends and by borrowing some ideas from other disciplines. Beyond the realm of electronic resources management, but perhaps linked to it in some ways, is the need for libraries to continue developing and improving research data management. Libraries will also need to take advantage of linked data and the Semantic Web. As our society and the greater academic community continue to be transformed by the transition from more traditional analogue information systems to digital information systems, both in terms of technology and the wider human experience, libraries will have to keep up. All too often, our profession has a broadly based antiquarian bias, but most librarians now have to work quickly in real time to deliver the best possible solutions to busy users. Please understand that studying the past is incredibly important. I personally value the work of history and all its related disciplines. How could scientists create credible predictions for future climate change without the use of extensive historical data and models? Nonetheless, one has to have a good reason to look backward. While it is not always easy to do, we as contemporary librarians need to spend more time looking ahead. 

Learn more at the ALA Store.

Metadata – have we got the ethics right?

Guest post by David Haynes, author of Metadata for Information Management and Retrieval: Understanding Metadata and its Use, Second Edition

Use of metadata by the security services

“Metadata tells you everything about somebody’s life.  If you have enough metadata you don’t really need content” (Schneier 2015, p.23)

If anyone wondered about the importance of metadata, this quote by Stuart Baker of the US National Security Agency should leave no one in any doubt.  The Snowden revelations about the routine gathering of metadata about international telephone calls to or from the United States continues to have repercussions today (Greenwald 2013).  Indeed Privacy International (2017) has identified the following types of metadata that is gathered or could be gathered by security agencies:

  • Location
  • Device used
  • Date/time
  • Sender
  • Recipient
  • Length of call

“Metadata in aggregate is content” as Jacob Appelbaum observed when the Wikileaks controversy first blew up  (Democracy Now 2013).  In other words when metadata from different sources is aggregated it can be used to reconstruct the information content of individual communications.

Photo by Matthew Henry on UnsplashInvasion of privacy or personal benefit?

These concerns extend well beyond the use of metadata by Governments and the security services.  The social media giants prosper by exploiting personal data and targeting digital advertising.  Personal profiles of targeted individuals are based on metadata about online use and are the basis of online behavioural advertising.  Cookies and other tracking technologies can monitor the online activity of an individual to predict future behaviour.  Metadata about online sessions reveals a great deal about an individual and his or her life.  This may extend to gathering information about friends, family, colleagues and other contacts.

The upside of this is that metadata is a powerful tool to facilitate use of online services, by remembering users’ preferences and delivering content that is more likely to be of interest or relevance to them.  This has to be balanced against the risks associated with online disclosure of personal data.


Metadata describes an information object whether that be raw data or more descriptive information about an individual.  This is important because the treatment of metadata has become a political issue.  Personal data, especially data that reveals opinions, attitudes and beliefs is potentially very sensitive.  Use of this personal data by service providers or by third parties can expose users to risks such as nuisance from unwanted ads, harassment from internet trolls or fraud through identity theft, if the data is not held or transmitted security.  Many digital advertisers would say that because the data is aggregated it is not possible to identify individuals – i.e. the data is anonymised.  However this is no protection against privacy breaches as has been demonstrated by Narayanan and Shmatikov (2009) and others.

Fact-free content

Daniel Rosenberg (2013) makes a nice distinction between data, facts and evidence.  Data if true may be a fact, but if false ceases to be a fact.  Samuel Arbesman (2012) in his book ‘The Half Life of Facts’ introduced the idea that in a given period half the certainties that we had are shown to be false or are superceded by new understandings and that they cease to be ‘facts’.  Data, whether it is true or not, continues to be data, but is only factual if true.  Perhaps there is some way of recording the reliability of information or data so that it can be exploited appropriately.  Many of the arguments and counter-arguments on climate change for instance centre on the quality and veracity of the evidence used by each side of the debate.  This idea is not new, as medical researchers have for some time evaluated the quality of research used to make clinical decisions.  This information about the quality and reliability of data is metadata.

Metadata is political

Metadata has become a political issue because of its use by security agencies and because of wider privacy issues in the commercial world.  Anyone who had asked the question ‘What does metadata matter?’ prior to 2013 will realise just how important a bearing it has on current political issues.  The Fourth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution protects ‘The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures’ (United States 1791).  A lot hangs on the interpretation of privacy as Solove (2011) has so eloquently discussed in his book ‘Nothing to Hide’.  ‘Fake news’ is not new, but the phenomenon has reared its head in recent elections and is unlikely to go away any time soon.  Good governance also depends on a good understanding of metadata and accountability for past actions.

book cover for Metadata for Information Management and Retrieval: Understanding Metadata and its Use, Second EditionMetadata for information management and retrieval

In the new edition of Metadata for Information Management and Retrieval, published in January 2018 I consider the origins of metadata and look at the ways in which it is used for managing information resources.  The ethical dimensions of metadata are explored and issues such as governance, privacy, security and human rights are considered.  The book also discusses the digital divide and the potential that metadata has for making information accessible to wider audiences.

Metadata has an important role in politics and ethics.  How then do we manage it to best effect?

Haynes, D (2018) Metadata for Information Management and Retrieval: Understanding Metadata and its Use, Second Edition ISBN 9781856048248. Facet Publishing. London, 2018, 267pp.

You can follow David on Twitter @JDavidHaynes


Arbesman, S., 2012. The half-life of facts : why everything we know has an expiration date,

Democracy Now, 2013. Court: Gov’t Can Secretly Obtain Email, Twitter Info from Ex-WikiLeaks Volunteer Jacob Appelbaum. Available at: [Accessed March 21, 2017].

Greenwald, G., 2013. NSA Collecting Phone Records of Millions of Verizon Customers Daily. The Guardian. Available at: [Accessed July 7, 2014].

Narayanan, A. & Shmatikov, V., 2009. De-anonymizing Social Networks. In 2009 30th IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. IEEE, pp. 173–187.

Privacy International, 2017. Privacy 101. Metadata. Available at: [Accessed March 23, 2017].

Rosenberg, D., 2013. Data before the Fact. In L. Gitelman, ed. “Raw Data” is an Oxymoron. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 15–40.

Schneier, B., 2015. Data and Goliath: the hidden battles to collect your data and control your world, New York, NY: W.W.Norton.

Solove, D.J., 2011. Nothing to Hide: the false tradeoff between privacy and security, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

United States, 1791. U.S. Constitution Amendment IV, United States.

This post originally appeared in a somewhat different form on the Facet Publishing blog

Delivering a Data Strategy in the Cauldron of Business As Usual

Guest blog by the co-authors of The Chief Data Officer’s Playbook, Caroline Carruthers (Group Director of Data Management, Lowell Group) and Peter Jackson (Chief Data Officer, Southern Water).

Being a Chief Data Officer in the current climate is a rather interesting place to be, it can feel a little like dancing on quicksand while you have to learn to juggle wriggling snakes. So in order to help people interested in this area, whether you are a new CDO, well established data hero or just wondering what all the fuss is about, we have worked on a set of articles to answer some of the questions we are asked at nearly every conference we go to. While we can’t promise you a solution to all your data related problems handed to you on a plate, we can promise that once a week you can look forward to another concise, interesting and easy to read article to help you on your data and information related journey.

One of the most difficult tasks for the new CDO is developing a Data Strategy while the organi\zation continues to operate (and must continue to operate) using and abusing data, continuing with bad habits around data and often with a lack of governance and planning. This has been likened to performing open heart surgery on a runner while they are in the middle of a marathon, in reality it’s more like patching them up, giving them water to keep them going and a clear map to get them to the end of the race. In most situations for a new CDO the organisation probably feels that it has been operating quite happily without this new person for a very long while. So, for the new CDO it may feel like they are sitting in the corner talking to themselves. Alternatively the CDO may be met with comments like ‘Yes, we tried that before and it didn’t work’ or ‘ IT/ Finance/ Procurement/ Marketing (delete as appropriate) won’t like you doing that’ or my personal favourite ‘that’s not how we do that here’.

What is the context of Business As Usual? In most cases (unless the organisation is a start-up) it will be:

  • a legacy data environment: siloes of data, multiple records, ‘duplicates’, weak data governance, no useful meta data, heavy MI and no BI.
  • legacy systems: burning platforms, bespoke developments, hard to maintain and manage, reporting systems remote from end-users, no true data management systems
  • legacy business processes: evolved over time, limited by technology and data available at the point in time, containing many work-arounds
  • multiple suppliers: of software and systems
  • legacy IT department: focused on building stuff rather than delivering and supporting software-as-a-service, internal networks as opposed to cloud
  • legacy ‘transformation’ process: based on project governance and waterfall, struggling with agile and innovation. Not able to adapt to transformation being data driven rather than technology driven

The task for the new CDO is how to steer their way through this bubbling cauldron and deliver a data strategy. One approach is to break the task down into two parts: an Immediate Data Strategy (IDS), a tactical approach to deliver support for BAU, gain quick wins and temporary fixes and to prepare the way for the second part. The additional benefit of the IDS is the delivery of incremental value to the organisation through its data, avoiding the hypecycle on the way (the next article deals with this in more detail). The second part is the Target Data Strategy (TDS), the strategic approach. The new CDO cannot sit back and deliver the TDS over a two to three year window, the organisation will probably be expecting some results now, so it is just as important to set realistic expectations as it is to provide some tactical delivery through the IDS. One piece of advice, don’t call these tactical deliveries ‘Projects’ instead refer to them as ‘Initiatives’, this might engender a more agile approach.

The IDS should listen to the organisation’s data pain and try to deliver high profile quick wins. The tactical initiatives of the IDS should blend into the strategy of the TDS, and not run down a rabbit hole or blind alley. The IDS should help build up the narrative and vision of the TDS.

The six key elements of the IDS could be:

  1. Stability and rationalisation of the existing data environment
  2. Data culture and governance
  3. Existing and immediate data and IT development projects
  4. Data exploitation and integration
  5. Data performance, quality, integrity, assurance and provenance
  6. Data security (especially with GDPR in mind).

While the new CDO is delivering the IDS they should be pushing the TDS through business engagement, the organisation needs to be prepared, ready and believe in the changes that are coming. The CDO should also be using the IDS to show the ‘art of the possible’ to a data illiterate business to help the business engage with the new data possibilities. Through the IDS they should be running Proof of Concepts, feasibility studies, data science initiatives and building a narrative around the vision of the TDS for all levels of the business.

Finally, six tips on how to succeed using the IDS and TDS approach:

  1. Use internal communications to sell the vision, don’t allow a vacuum to form
  2. Seek every opportunity to communicate the vision. Do not be frightened of becoming a data bore.
  3. Socialise the data visons and the changes that could be coming, especially the controversial ideas, locate the data champions to support you
  4. Engage the organisation’s leadership and find your senior sponsors, they will be crucial
  5. If you can’t explain it, you’re doing something wrong, ‘it’s me not you’
  6. Win hearts and minds, often a good argument is not enough to win the day.

The book is available to purchase now. This post first appeared in a somewhat different form on the Facet Publishing blog.

Top tips for a data reference interview

The reference interview - or consultation - is a well established technique used by librarians and information professionals. This helps establish the issues that a researcher wishes to cover. More fundamentally it also defines the kind of relationship a researcher will have with those offering advice. Now that the use and management of research data is so important to academics it has become an important potential element of the reference interview. This extract from The Data Librarian's Handbook shows how it can be used to bridge traditional librarianship and the expertise required by the data librarian.

Established researchers often know what datasets are available in their field of study, or at least the main sources and providers from which to seek them. They are immersed in the literature and knowledgeable about the activities of their peers, they know the institutes and principal investigators that are producing research relevant to their work. This is usually not the case with postgraduate students, even less so with undergraduate students, and nor is it the case with researchers exploring the boundaries of their disciplines or doing cross-disciplinary research. 

Fortunately for data librarians, it is possible to become knowledgeable about sourcing datasets in a given field without being an expert in that field. How do data librarians match users to the data required?  Through a reference consultation or interview.

Since every research question is unique (unlike every classroom assignment), it is easy to feel daunted when confronted by a new one. These are some helpful hints to guide you through a difficult reference interview:

  1. Buy yourself time by asking more questions before trying to come up with a source; avoid making assumptions about the user’s requirements, prior knowledge or viewpoint.
  2. Find out if the user is basing their query on a published article; ask for the citation or a copy to help you with the context. If a student, ask who is their teacher or supervisor.
  3. Ask the user to explain acronyms and jargon they use in their language; you do not have to pretend to be an expert in their area of study to help them.
  4. Take notes and write down key phrases as the user speaks (if meeting in person or on the telephone).
  5. Even if you are unable to find the perfect source for your user, you can probably give them some useful starting points for their search, based on your knowledge of data sources, or that of your peers.
  6. Do not be afraid to take time to think, search and consult others; always take the user’s e-mail address for future contact or to follow up.
  7. If you remain stumped, resort to asking others: immediate colleagues, peers at other institutions, government statistical agencies, data providers and publishers. Once you have done your homework and ruled out obvious contenders you can also post to a library mailing list or the member list of IASSIST.
  8. If the query is about using a dataset rather than finding one, take time to read the documentation, try out the interface yourself or reproduce the problem before turning to others for help.
  9. If the user does not voluntarily let you know their query has been satisfied, follow up in a reasonable amount of time to see if you can offer further assistance.

Interest in data has been growing in recent years. Support for this peculiar class of digital information – its use, preservation and curation, and how to support researchers’ production and consumption of it in ever greater volumes to create new knowledge, is needed more than ever.  Many librarians and information professionals are finding their working life is pulling them toward data support or research data management but lack the skills required. The Data Librarian’s Handbook, written by two data librarians with over 30 years’ combined experience, unpicks the everyday role of the data librarian and offers practical guidance on how to collect, curate and crunch data for economic, social and scientific purposes.

(This post originally appeared in a somewhat different form at CILIP)

Books hot off the press, Meet the Authors at the ALA Store in Orlando

Located just inside the Shuttle Bus Entrance at the Orange County Convention Center, the ALA Store offers products that meet the widest range of your promotional and continuing education/professional development needs—as well as fun gift items. Make sure to carve out some time in your schedule during the conference to stop by and examine the many new and bestselling items available!

ALA Store hours:

  • Friday, June 24            12:00 pm – 5:30 pm
  • Saturday, June 25       8:30 am – 5:00 pm
  • Sunday, June 26          8:30 am – 5:00 pm
  • Monday, June 27        9:00 am – 2:00 pm

ALA Graphics will feature a selection of popular posters, bookmarks, and promotional materials, including new 2016 Teen Read Week and Banned Book Week items. And stop by early to get your pick of conference t-shirts—they sell out fast! We’ll also be introducing several brand new items and exclusive gifts:

  • Libraries Transform Expert Badges
  • CSK Book Award T-shirts
  • CSK Book Award Pashmina (limited quantity and only available at the Conference Store)

ALA Editions and ALA divisions are excited to offer several new titles hot off the press, such as “RDA Essentials,” by Thomas Brenndorfer; “Engaging Babies in the Library: Putting Theory into Practice,” by Debra J. Knoll; and “The Librarian's Nitty Gritty Guide to Content Marketing,” by Laura Solomon. Come by the ALA Store for these special Meet the Author events:

Saturday, June 25      

Sunday, June 26      

Remember that you can now find titles from ALA Neal-Schuman and Facet Publishing in the ALA Store. You can also get free shipping on all book orders placed in the ALA Store (posters, bookmarks, and other gift-type items are not eligible for this offer).

Stop by the ALA Store to learn more about our eLearning opportunities. You can also arrange for a live demo of RDA Toolkit—just contact us by June 20 to request an appointment.

Prices at the ALA Store automatically reflect the ALA Member discount, so there’s no need to dig out your Member number. And remember that every dollar you spend at the ALA Store helps support library advocacy, awareness, and other key programs and initiatives!

Demystifying Copyright: How to Educate Your Staff and Community

Lesley Ellen Harris will be teaching the ALA Editions eCourse Demystifying Copyright: How to Educate Your Staff and Community beginning on September 12th. You can learn more about the course and register for it at the ALA Store.

In July 2011, in one of her first interviews upon becoming the U.S. Register of Copyrights, Maria Pallante was asked by Nate Anderson from ARS Technica if the extra attention caused by increased public interest in copyright had complicated life in the U.S. Copyright Office. Pallante’s response:

“I'm thrilled that more people care about copyright. I graduated from law school in 1990 and copyright was kind of a growing field then—environmental law was also newly hot—and it's only gotten bigger and better since. I do look at it sometimes with amusement; the field I obviously fell in love with right off the bat has gained so much attention.

            But I think it's great that the public is interested. It presents a lot of challenges but a lot of opportunities. I would like to see people respect copyright, I would like to see them know how copyright works, what it means for them in their daily lives.

            It's one of those life skills now, right? When you graduate from high school or college, you should know how to read a map, you should know how to use GPS, you should know a little bit about copyright. If you are somebody who is going to be in a field where you will encounter copyrighted materials all the time, you should know more. If you're going to be an artist or musician and you're getting a red-hot degree in the performing arts, you should know a lot. And I don't think that's quite the case—I don't think it's been built into curricula.”

What is Copyright Education and Why is it Important to you?

Libraries in organizations of all sizes are increasingly responsible for obtaining copyright permissions and providing information about copyright law. An increasing role of libraries as “copyright administrators” is to educate various internal people and departments and sometimes the public too about the basics of copyright laws, compliance with copyright guidelines, and respecting terms and conditions in license agreements.

Librarians who want to be perceived as the YES person for obtaining access to use content must be able to educate their community on copyright and licensing. Yet there is no exact definition of the concept of copyright education.  First, it is important that the copyright education be framed according to the needs of and in the context of your own enterprise. You will then need to be creative in developing and instituting an enterprise-wide education program. Your goals will be to increase the comfort level of staff in applying copyright in day-to-day situations, to lower the risk of employees infringing copyright law, and to lower potential or actual costs relating to copyright infringement.

Information about copyright law should come from a variety of sources from print and online information to discussion groups and seminars, courses and workshops. An online course beginning September 12, 2011 covers the following topics:

  • Understanding the risks of copyright infringement and how to protect your library from lawsuits
  • Understanding the need for copyright compliance nationally and globally
  • Evaluating copyright issues in your library
  • Developing a copyright education plan
  • Assessing materials, content and technology in order to equip an instruction team for your institution
  • Keeping your educational program up to date

Taking an active role in copyright education in your library is a giant step towards copyright compliance and management.

“Demystifying Copyright: How to Educate Your Staff and Your Community” offered by ALA Editions and taught by Lesley Ellen Harris (, a copyright, licensing and digital property lawyer. Online content will be presented over a four-week period with opportunities to post to online discussion boards, complete weekly assignments and activities and discuss your individual questions.

For more information regarding online learning, see

Your advice for on-line learners? By Joshua Kim     

Our E-books Are Everywhere!

Okay, perhaps not everywhere, but certainly in more places than ever before! We've been working hard to make our e-books more accessible. The following outlets either carry our e-book titles already or will in the near future:

These are just the beginning. Keep your eyes peeled here at the blog for future updates!

ALA Editions on Nook

Owners of a Nook, the award-winning Barnes & Noble eReader, can now purchase several best-selling ALA Editions e-books at We’re adding more titles every week, and among those already available are:

ALA Editions e-books are also available through Amazon, the Google eBookstore, NetLibrary, and other e-book distributors, as well as directly from the ALA Store.

Check Out PLA's Turning the Page 2.0


If you haven’t seen it yet, you’re going to want to check out and sign up for this new, FREE training program. Just one hour a week (like my book!), for six weeks, library staff and supporters from around the country can build their advocacy skills and strengthen their libraries with PLA’s Turning the Page 2.0! If, like many, you’re looking for low-cost, effective and “schedule friendly” training for yourself and/or your staff, don’t miss this!

Go to: and check it out!

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